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Published June 13, 2020 Updated August 7, 2020
Git Lint Icon

Git Lint

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A command line interface for linting Git commits. Ensures you maintain a clean, easy to read, debuggable, and maintainable project history.

Git Lint is the official port of the original Git Cop project that avoids references to violence or violent terminology that might make anyone feel unwelcome. The name change was necessary in order to better support the Black Lives Matter and Defund Police movements.

Features

  • Enforces a Git Rebase Workflow.

  • Enforces a clean and consistent Git commit history.

  • Provides a customizable suite of analyzers.

  • Provides Git Hook support for local use.

  • Provides Continuous Integration (CI) build server support.

Screencasts

Screencast

Requirements

Setup

Production

To install, run:

gem install git-lint

Development

To contribute, run:

git clone https://github.com/bkuhlmann/git-lint.git
cd git-lint
bin/setup

You can also use the IRB console for direct access to all objects:

bin/console

Usage

Command Line Interface (CLI)

From the command line, type: git-lint --help

git-lint --hook                # Add Git Hook support.
git-lint -a, [--analyze]       # Analyze feature branch for issues.
git-lint -c, [--config]        # Manage gem configuration.
git-lint -h, [--help=COMMAND]  # Show this message or get help for a command.
git-lint -v, [--version]       # Show gem version.

To check if your Git commit history is clean, run: git-lint --analyze. It will exit with a failure if at least one issue with error severity is detected.

This gem does not check commits on master. This is intentional as you would, generally, not want to rewrite or fix commits on master. This gem is best used on feature branches as it automatically detects all commits made since master on the feature branch.

Here is an example workflow, using gem defaults with issues detected:

cd example
git checkout -b test
touch text.txt
git add --all .
git commit --message "This is a bogus commit message that is also terribly long and will word wrap"
git-lint --analyze

Output:

Running Git Lint...

83dbad531d84a184e55cbb38c5b2a4e5fa5bcaee (Brooke Kuhlmann, 0 seconds ago): This is a bogus commit message that is also terribly long and will word wrap.
  Commit Body Presence Warning. Use minimum of 1 line (non-empty).
  Commit Subject Length Error. Use 72 characters or less.
  Commit Subject Prefix Error. Use: /Fixed/, /Added/, /Updated/, /Removed/, /Refactored/.
  Commit Subject Suffix Error. Avoid: /\./, /\?/, /\!/.

1 commit inspected. 4 issues detected (1 warning, 3 errors).

Rake

This gem provides optional Rake tasks. They can be added to your project by adding the following requirement to the top of your Rakefile:

require "git/lint/rake/setup"

Now, when running bundle exec rake -T, you’ll see git_lint included in the list.

If you need a concrete example, check out the Rakefile of this project for details.

Configuration

This gem can be configured via a global configuration:

$HOME/.config/git-lint/configuration.yml

It can also be configured via XDG environment variables. The default configuration is:

:commit_author_capitalization:
  :enabled: true
  :severity: :error
:commit_author_email:
  :enabled: true
  :severity: :error
:commit_author_name:
  :enabled: true
  :severity: :error
  :minimum: 2
:commit_body_bullet:
  :enabled: true
  :severity: :error
  :excludes:
    - "\*"
    - "â€ĸ"
:commit_body_bullet_capitalization:
  :enabled: true
  :severity: :error
  :includes: "\-"
:commit_body_bullet_delimiter:
  :enabled: true
  :severity: :error
  :includes: "\-"
:commit_body_issue_tracker_link:
  :enabled: true,
  :severity: :error
  :excludes:
    - "(f|F)ix(es|ed)?\s\#\d+"
    - "(c|C)lose(s|d)?\s\#\d+"
    - "(r|R)esolve(s|d)?\s\#\d+"
    - "github\.com\/.+\/issues\/\d+"
:commit_body_leading_line:
  :enabled: false
  :severity: :warn
:commit_body_line_length:
  :enabled: true
  :severity: :error
  :length: 72
:commit_body_paragraph_capitalization:
  :enabled: true
  :severity: :error
:commit_body_phrase:
  :enabled: true
  :severity: :error
  :excludes:
    - "absolutely"
    - "actually"
    - "all intents and purposes"
    - "along the lines"
    - "at this moment in time"
    - "basically"
    - "each and every one"
    - "everyone knows"
    - "fact of the matter"
    - "furthermore"
    - "however"
    - "in due course"
    - "in the end"
    - "last but not least"
    - "matter of fact"
    - "obviously"
    - "of course"
    - "really"
    - "simply"
    - "things being equal"
    - "would like to"
    - "/\beasy\b/"
    - "/\bjust\b/"
    - "/\bquite\b/"
    - "/as\sfar\sas\s.+\sconcerned/"
    - "/of\sthe\s(fact|opinion)\sthat/"
:commit_body_presence:
  :enabled: false
  :severity: :warn
  :minimum: 1
:commit_body_single_bullet:
  :enabled: true
  :severity: :error
  :includes: "\-"
:commit_subject_length:
  :enabled: true
  :severity: :error
  :length: 72
:commit_subject_prefix:
  :enabled: true
  :severity: :error
  :includes:
    - Fixed
    - Added
    - Updated
    - Removed
    - Refactored
:commit_subject_suffix:
  :enabled: true
  :severity: :error
  :excludes:
    - "\."
    - "\?"
    - "\!"
:commit_trailer_collaborator_capitalization:
  :enabled: true
  :severity: :error
:commit_trailer_collaborator_duplication:
  :enabled: true
  :severity: :error
:commit_trailer_collaborator_email:
  :enabled: true
  :severity: :error
:commit_trailer_collaborator_key:
  :enabled: true
  :severity: :error
  :includes:
    - "Co-Authored-By"
:commit_trailer_collaborator_name:
  :enabled: true
  :severity: :error
  :minimum: 2

Feel free to take this default configuration, modify, and save as your own custom configuration.yml.

Enablement

By default, most analyzers are enabled. Accepted values are true or false. If you wish to disable a analyzer, set it to false.

Severity Levels

By default, most analyzers are set to error severity. If you wish to reduce the severity level of a analyzer, you can set it to warn instead. Here are the accepted values and what each means:

  • warn: Will count as an issue and display a warning but will not cause the program/build to fail. Use this if you want to display issues as reminders or cautionary warnings.

  • error: Will count as an issue, display error output, and cause the program/build to fail. Use this setting if you want to ensure bad commits are prevented.

Regular Expressions

Some analyzers support include or exclude lists. These lists can consist of strings, regular expressions, or a combination thereof. Regardless of your choice, all lists are automatically converted to regular expression for use by the analyzers. This means a string like "example" becomes /example/ and a regular expression of "\AExample.+" becomes /\AExample.+/.

If you need help constructing complex regular expressions for these lists, try launching an IRB session and using Regexp.new or Regexp.escape to experiment with the types of words/phrases you want to turn into regular expressions. For purposes of the YAML configuration, these need to be expressed as strings with special characters escaped properly for internal conversion to a regular expression.

Git Hooks

This gem supports Git Hooks.

It is highly recommended you manage Git Hooks as global scripts as it’ll reduce project maintenance costs for you. To configure global Git Hooks, add the following to your $HOME/.gitconfig:

[core]
  hooksPath = ~/.git_template/hooks

Then you can customize Git Hooks for all of your projects. Check out these examples.

If a global configuration is not desired, you can add Git Hooks at a per project level by editing any of the scripts within the .git/hooks directory of the repository.

Commit Message

The commit-msg hook, which is the best way to use this gem as a Git Hook, is provided as a --hook option. Run git-lint --help --hook for usage:

Usage:
  git-lint --hook
Options:
  [--commit-message=PATH]  # Check commit message.
Add Git Hook support.

As shown above, the --commit-message option accepts a file path (i.e. .git/COMMIT_EDITMSG) which is provided to you by Git within the .git/hooks/commit-msg script. Here is a working example of what that script might look like:

#! /usr/bin/env bash

set -o nounset
set -o errexit
set -o pipefail
IFS=$'\n\t'

if ! command -v git-lint > /dev/null; then
   printf "%s\n" "[git]: Git Lint not found. To install, run: gem install git-lint."
   exit 1
fi

git-lint --hook --commit-message "${BASH_ARGV[0]}"

Whenever you attempt to add a commit, Git Lint will check your commit for issues prior to saving it.

Post Commit

The post-commit hook is possible via the --analyze --commits option. Usage:

Usage:
  git-lint -a, [--analyze]

Options:
  -c, [--commits=one two three]  # Analyze specific commit SHA(s).

Analyze feature branch for issues.

The post-commit hook can be used multiple ways but, if you want it to check each commit after it has been made, here is a working example which can be used as a .git/hooks/post-commit script:

#! /usr/bin/env bash

set -o nounset
set -o errexit
set -o pipefail
IFS=$'\n\t'

if ! command -v git-lint > /dev/null; then
   printf "%s\n" "[git]: Git Lint not found. To install, run: gem install git-lint."
   exit 1
fi

git-lint --analyze --commits $(git log --pretty=format:%H -1)

Whenever a commit has been saved, this script will run Git Lint to check for issues.

Continuous Integration (CI)

This gem automatically configures itself for known CI build servers (see below for details). If you have a build server that is not listed, please log an issue or provide an implementation with support.

Calculation of commits is done by reviewing all commits made on the feature branch since branching from master.

Circle CI

Detection and configuration happens automatically by checking the CIRCLECI environment variable. No additional setup required!

Netlify CI

Detection and configuration happens automatically by checking the NETLIFY environment variable. No additional setup required!

Travis CI

Detection and configuration happens automatically by checking the TRAVIS environment variable. No additional setup required!

Analyzers

The following details the various analyzers provided by this gem to ensure a high standard of commits for your project.

Commit Author Capitalization

Enabled Severity Defaults

true

error

none

Ensures author name is properly capitalized. Example:

# Disallowed
jayne cobb
dr. simon tam

# Allowed
Jayne Cobb
Dr. Simon Tam

Commit Author Email

Enabled Severity Defaults

true

error

none

Ensures author email address exists. Git requires an author email when you use it for the first time too. This takes it a step further to ensure the email address loosely resembles an email address.

# Disallowed
mudder_man

# Allowed
jayne@serenity.com

Commit Author Name

Enabled Severity Defaults

true

error

minimum: 2

Ensures author name consists of, at least, a first and last name. Example:

# Disallowed
Kaylee

# Allowed
Kaywinnet Lee Frye

Commit Body Bullet

Enabled Severity Defaults

true

error

excludes: ["\*", "â€ĸ"]

Ensures commit message bodies use a standard Markdown syntax for bullet points. Markdown supports the following syntax for bullets:

*
-

It’s best to use dashes for bullet point syntax as stars are easier to read when used for emphasis. This makes parsing the Markdown syntax easier when reviewing a Git commit as the syntax used for bullet points and emphasis are now, distinctly, unique.

Commit Body Bullet Capitalization

Enabled Severity Defaults

true

error

includes: ["\-"]

Ensures commit body bullet lines are capitalized. Example:

# Disallowed
- an example bullet.

# Allowed
- An example bullet.

Commit Body Bullet Delimiter

Enabled Severity Defaults

true

error

includes: ["\-"]

Ensures commit body bullets are delimited by a space. Example:

# Disallowed
-An example bullet.

# Allowed
- An example bullet.
Enabled Severity Defaults

true

error

excludes: (see configuration)

Ensures commit body doesn’t contain a link to an issue tracker. The exclude list defaults to GitHub Issue links but can be customized for any issue tracker.

There are several reasons for excluding issue tracker links from commit bodies:

  1. Not all issue trackers preserve issues (meaning they can be deleted). This makes make reading historic commits much harder to understand why the change was made when the link no longer works.

  2. When not connected to the internet or working on a laggy connection, it’s hard to understand why a commit was made when all you have is a link to an issue with no other supporting context.

  3. During the course of a repository’s life, issue trackers can be replaced (rare but it does happen). If the old issue tracker service is no longer paid for, none of the links within the commit will be of any relevance.

  4. An issue might span several commits in order to resolve it. Including a link in each commit is tedious and can create noise within the issue’s history which is distracting.

Instead of linking to issues, take the time to write a short summary as to why the commit was made. Doing this will make it easier to understand why the commit was made, keeps the commit self- contained, and makes learning about/debugging the commit faster.

Issue tracker links are best used at the code review level due to an issue usually spanning multiple commits in order to complete the work. When reading a code review, this is a great opportunity to link to an issue in order to provide a high level overview and reason why the code review was initiated in the first place.

Commit Body Leading Line

Enabled Severity Defaults

true

error

none

Ensures there is a leading, empty line, between the commit subject and body. Generally, this isn’t an issue but sometimes the Git CLI can be misused or a misconfigured Git editor will smash the subject line and start of the body as one run-on paragraph. Example:

# Disallowed

Curabitur eleifend wisi iaculis ipsum.
Pellentque morbi-trist sentus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Vestibulum tortor
quam, feugiat vitae, ultricies eget, tempor sit amet, ante. Donec eu_libero sit amet quam
egestas semper. Aenean ultricies mi vitae est. Mauris placerat's eleifend leo. Quisque et sapien
ullamcorper pharetra. Vestibulum erat wisi, condimentum sed, commodo vitae, orn si amt wit.

# Allowed

Curabitur eleifend wisi iaculis ipsum.

Pellentque morbi-trist sentus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Vestibulum tortor
quam, feugiat vitae, ultricies eget, tempor sit amet, ante. Donec eu_libero sit amet quam
egestas semper. Aenean ultricies mi vitae est. Mauris placerat's eleifend leo. Quisque et sapien
ullamcorper pharetra. Vestibulum erat wisi, condimentum sed, commodo vitae, orn si amt wit.

Commit Body Line Length

Enabled Severity Defaults

true

error

length: 72

Ensures each line of the commit body is no longer than 72 characters in length for consistent readability and word-wrap prevention on smaller screen sizes. For further details, read Tim Pope’s original article on the subject.

Commit Body Paragraph Capitalization

Enabled Severity Defaults

true

error

none

Ensures each paragraph of the commit body is capitalized. Example:

# Disallowed
curabitur eleifend wisi iaculis ipsum.

# Allowed
Curabitur eleifend wisi iaculis ipsum.

Commit Body Phrase

Enabled Severity Defaults

true

error

excludes: (see configuration)

Ensures non-descriptive words/phrases are avoided in order to keep commit message bodies informative and specific. The exclude list is case insensitive. Detection of excluded words/phrases is case insensitive as well. Example:

# Disallowed

Obviously, the existing implementation was too simple for my tastes. Of course, this couldn't be
allowed. Everyone knows the correct way to implement this code is to do just what I've added in
this commit. Easy!

# Allowed

Necessary to fix due to a bug detected in production. The included implementation fixes the bug
and provides the missing spec to ensure this doesn't happen again.

Commit Body Presence

Enabled Severity Defaults

false

warn

minimum: 1

Ensures a minimum number of lines are present within the commit body. Lines with empty characters (i.e. whitespace, carriage returns, etc.) are considered to be empty.

Automatically ignores fixup! commits as they are not meant to have bodies.

Commit Body Single Bullet

Enabled Severity Defaults

true

error

includes: "\-"

Ensures a single bullet is never used when a paragraph could be used instead. Example:

# Disallowed

- Pellentque morbi-trist sentus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Vestibulum tortor
  quam, feugiat vitae, ultricies eget, tempor sit amet, ante. Donec eu_libero sit amet quam.

# Allowed

Pellentque morbi-trist sentus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Vestibulum tortor
quam, feugiat vitae, ultricies eget, tempor sit amet, ante. Donec eu_libero sit amet quam.

Commit Subject Length

Enabled Severity Defaults

true

error

length: 72

Ensures the commit subject length is no more than 72 characters in length. This default is more lenient than the 50/72 rule as it gives one the ability to formulate a more descriptive subject line without being too wordy or suffer being word wrapped.

Automatically ignores fixup! or squash! commit prefixes when calculating subject length.

Commit Subject Prefix

Enabled Severity Defaults

true

error

includes: (see below)

Ensures the commit subject uses consistent prefixes that explain what is being committed. The includes are case sensitive and default to the following prefixes:

  • Fixed - Identifies what was fixed. The commit should be as small as possible and consist of changes to implementation and spec only. In some cases this might be a single line or file change. The important point is the change is applied to existing code which corrects behavior that wasn’t properly implemented earlier.

  • Removed - Identifies what was removed. The commit should be as small as possible and consist only of removed lines/files from the existing implementation. This might also mean breaking changes requiring the publishing of a major version release in the future.

  • Added - Identifies what was added. The commit should be as small as possible and consist of implementation and spec. Otherwise, it might be a change to an existing file which adds new behavior.

  • Updated - Identifies what was updated. The commit should be as small as possible and not add or fix existing behavior. This can sometimes be a grey area but is typically reserved for updates to documentation, code comments, dependencies, etc.

  • Refactored - Identifies what was refactored. The commit should be as small as possible and only improve existing functionality while avoiding changes in behavior (especially to public API that might effect downstream dependencies). Refactored code should never break existing specs.

In practice, using a prefix other than what has been detailed above to explain what is being committed is never needed. These prefixes are not only short and easy to remember but also have the added benefit of categorizing the commits for building release notes, change logs, etc. This becomes handy when coupled with another tool, Milestoner, for producing consistent project milestones and Git tag histories.

Automatically ignores fixup! or squash! commit prefixes when used as a Git Hook in order to not disturb interactive rebase workflows.

Commit Subject Suffix

Enabled Severity Defaults

true

error

excludes: ["\.", "\?", "\!"]

Ensures commit subjects are suffixed consistently. The exclude list is case sensitive and prevents the use of punctuation. This is handy when coupled with a tool, like Milestoner, which automates project milestone releases.

Commit Trailer Collaborator Capitalization

Enabled Severity Defaults

false

error

none

Ensures collaborator name is properly capitalized. Example:

# Disallowed
shepherd derrial book

# Allowed
Shepherd Derrial Book

Commit Trailer Collaborator Duplication

Enabled Severity Defaults

false

error

none

Ensures collaborator trailers are not duplicated. Example:

# Disallowed
Co-Authored-By: Shepherd Derrial Book <shepherd@firefly.com>
Co-Authored-By: Shepherd Derrial Book <shepherd@firefly.com>

# Allowed
Co-Authored-By: Malcolm Reynolds <malcolm@firefly.com>
Co-Authored-By: Shepherd Derrial Book <shepherd@firefly.com>

Commit Trailer Collaborator Email

Enabled Severity Defaults

false

error

none

Ensures collaborator email address is valid for commit trailer.

# Disallowed
Co-Authored-By: River Tam <invalid>

# Allowed
Co-Authored-By: River Tam <river@firefly.com>

Commit Trailer Collaborator Key

Enabled Severity Defaults

false

error

includes: ["Co-Authored-By"]

Ensures collaborator trailer key is correct format.

# Disallowed
Co-authored-by: River Tam <river@firefly.com>

# Allowed
Co-Authored-By: River Tam <river@firefly.com>

Commit Trailer Collaborator Name

Enabled Severity Defaults

false

error

minimum: 2

Ensures collaborator name consists of, at least, a first and last name. Example:

# Disallowed
Co-Authored-By: River <river@firefly.com>

# Allowed
Co-Authored-By: River Tam <river@firefly.com>

Style Guide

In addition to what is described above and automated for you, the following style guide is also worth considering:

General

  • Use a Git Rebase Workflow instead of a Git Merge Workflow.

  • Use git commit --amend when fixing a previous commit, addressing code review feedback, etc.

  • Use git commit --fixup when fixing an earlier commit, addressing code review feedback, etc., and don’t need to modify the original commit message.

  • Use git commit --squash when fixing an earlier commit, addressing code review feedback, etc., and want to combine multiple commit messages into a single commit message. Avoid using squash to blindly combine multiple commit messages without editing them into a single, coherent message.

  • Use git rebase --interactive when cleaning up commit history, order, messages, etc. This should be done prior to submitting a code review or when code review feedback has been addressed and you are ready to rebase onto master.

  • Use git push --force-with-lease instead of git push --force when pushing changes after an interactive rebasing session.

  • Avoid checking in development-specific configuration files (add to .gitignore instead).

  • Avoid checking in sensitive information (i.e. security keys, passphrases, etc).

  • Avoid "WIP" (a.k.a. "Work in Progress") commits and/or code review labels. Be confident with your code and colleagues' time. Use branches, stashes, etc. instead — share a link to a feature branch diff if you have questions/concerns during development.

  • Avoid using Git Submodules. This practice leads to complicated project cloning, deployments, maintenance, etc. Use separate repositories to better organize and split out this work. Sophisticated package managers, like Bundler for example, exist to manage these dependencies better than what multiple Git Submodules can accomplish.

  • Avoid using Git LFS for tracking binary artifacts/resources. These files are not meant for version control and lead to large repositories that are time consuming to clone/deploy. Use storage managers, like Amazon S3 for example, that are better suited for binary assets that don’t change often.

Commits

  • Use a commit subject that explains what is being committed.

  • Use a commit message body that explains why the commit is necessary. Additional considerations:

    • If the commit has a dependency to the previous commit or is a precursor to the commit that will follow, make sure to explain that.

    • Include links to dependent projects, stories, etc. if available.

  • Use small, atomic commits:

    • Easier to review and provide feedback.

    • Easier to review implementation and corresponding tests.

    • Easier to document with detailed subject messages (especially when grouped together in a pull request).

    • Easier to reword, edit, squash, fix, or drop when interactively rebasing.

    • Easier to combine together versus tearing apart a larger commit into smaller commits.

  • Use logically ordered commits:

    • Each commit should tell a story and be a logical building block to the next commit.

    • Each commit, when reviewed in order, should be able to explain how the feature or bug fix was completed and implemented properly.

Branches

  • Use feature branches for new work.

  • Maintain branches by rebasing upon master on a regular basis.

Tags

  • Use tags to denote milestones/releases:

    • Makes it easier to record milestones and capture associated release notes.

    • Makes it easier to compare differences between versions.

    • Provides a starting point for debugging production issues (if any).

Rebases

  • Avoid rebasing a shared branch. If you must do this, clear communication should be used to warn those ahead of time, ensure that all of their work is checked in, and that their local branch is deleted first.

Hooks

  • Use hooks to augment and automate your personal workflow such as checking code quality, detecting forgotten debug statements, etc.

  • Use hooks globally rather than locally per project. Doing this applies the same functionality across all projects automatically, reduces maintenance per project, and provides consistency across all projects. This can best be managed via your Dotfiles.

  • Avoid forcing global or local project hooks as a team-wide mandate. Hooks are a personal tool much like editors or other tools one choose to do their work. For team consistency, use a continuous integration build server instead.

Code Reviews

There are two objectives each code review should achieve:

  1. Quality: Ensures changes are of highest quality that adhere to team standards while enhancing the customer experience and not disrupting their workflow.

  2. Education: Provides a chance for everyone on the team to learn more about the architecture, product/service, and how each member of the team implements a solution. This is your chance to ask questions and learn how to be a better engineer so take advantage of it.

In addition to the objectives above, the following guidelines are worth following:

  • Keep code reviews short and easy to review:

    • Provide a high level overview that answers why the code review is necessary.

    • Provide a link to the issue/task that prompted the code review (if any).

    • Provide screenshots/screencasts if possible.

    • Ensure commits within the code review are related to the purpose of the code review.

    • Prefer code reviews at about 250 lines in order to keep the quality of the code review and defect detection high.

    • Avoid working on a large issue without getting feedback first in order to not overwhelm/surprise the maintainers. More discussion up front will help ensure your work has a faster chance of acceptance.

  • Review and rebase code reviews quickly:

    • Maintain a consistent but reasonable pace — Review morning, noon, and night.

    • Avoid letting code reviews linger more than a day. Otherwise, you risk hampering moral and diminishing the productivity of the team.

  • Use emojis, with a format of <emoji> <feedback>, to identify the kinds of feedback used during the review process:

    • đŸĩ (:tea:) - Signifies you are starting the code review. This is non-blocking and informational. Useful when reading over a code review with a large number of commits, complex code, requires additional testing by the reviewer, etc.

    • ⭐ī¸ (:star:) - Signifies code that is liked, favorited, remarkable, etc. This feedback is non-blocking and is always meant to be positive/uplifting.

    • ℹī¸ (:information_source:) - Signifies informational feedback that is non-blocking. Can also be used to let one know you are done reviewing but haven’t approved yet (due to feedback that needs addressing), rebasing a code review and then merging, waiting for a blocking code review to be resolved, status updates to the code review, etc.

    • 💭 (:thought_balloon:) - Signifies inquisitive intent that is non-blocking. Useful when asking questions and/or probing deeper into implementation details to learn more.

    • 🔤 (:abc:) - Signifies detection of a misspelling with suggested correction. This is blocking feedback that is easy to correct.

    • 🎨 (:art:) - Signifies an issue with code style and/or code quality. This can be blocking or non-blocking feedback. It is up to the discretion of the author on how to address the feedback but encouraged that the feedback is incorporated or at least discussed. Generally, these situations are automatically detected via code linters but there are occasions where there is ambiguity in which linters can’t catch.

    • 🏛 (:classical_building:) - Signifies an issue with the architecture of the implementation. This is blocking and requires immediate correction. The reviewer should provide a suggested solution and/or links to patterns, articles, etc. that might help the author fix the implementation. Pairing is encouraged if feedback is vast and/or complex.

    • 🔒 (:lock:) - Signifies a security violation that would damage us and/or our customers. This is blocking feedback and must be addressed immediately.

    • 💡 (:bulb:) - Indicates a helpful tip or trick for improving the code. This can be blocking or non-blocking feedback and is left up to the author to decide. Generally, it is a good idea to address and resolve the feedback.

    • 🙇 (:bow:) - Indicates thankfulness of the feedback received. This is non-blocking and always meant as a response to helpful feedback.

    • ✅ (:white_check_mark:) - Signifies code review approval. The author can rebase onto master and delete the feature branch at this point.

  • Use face-to-face communication if a code review’s written discussion gets lengthy/noisy.

  • Create new tasks/actions if additional features are discovered during a code review to avoid delaying code review acceptance. Return to the code review once tasks have been logged.

  • The author, not the reviewer, should rebase the feature branch onto master upon approval.

  • Avoid reviewing your own code review before rebasing onto master. Have another pair of eyes review your code first.

  • Ensure the following criteria is met before rebasing your feature branch to master:

    • Ensure all fixup! and squash! commits are interactively rebased. Avoid rebasing these onto the master branch!

    • Ensure your feature branch is rebased upon master.

    • Ensure all tests and code quality checks are passing.

    • Ensure the feature branch is deleted after being successfully rebased.

GitHub

When using GitHub, enforce a rebase workflow for all of your GitHub projects (highly recommended). You can do this via your project options (i.e. https://github.com/<username/<project>/settings) and editing your merge options for code reviews as follows:

GitHub Merge Options

In addition to the above, you’ll want to add branch protection rules for your master branch. To do this, follow these steps:

  1. Visit your branch settings (i.e. https://github.com/<username>/<project>/settings/branches).

  2. Click the Add rule button.

  3. For branch name pattern, enter: master.

  4. Check Require pull request reviews before merging.

  5. Set Required approving reviews to 2 as a minimum.

  6. Check Dismiss stale pull request approvals when new commits are pushed.

  7. Check Require review from Code Owners.

  8. Check Require status checks to pass before merging.

  9. Check Require branches to be up to date before merging.

  10. Check Require linear history (pairs well with the merge options mentioned above).

  11. Check Include administrators.

  12. Uncheck Require signed commits (only necessary for tags).

  13. Uncheck Allow force pushes.

  14. Uncheck Allow deletions.

With the above applied, you should have the following result:

GitHub Branch Protections

Applying the above changes will help maintain a clean Git history.

Tests

To test, run:

bundle exec rake

Versioning

Read Semantic Versioning for details. Briefly, it means:

  • Major (X.y.z) - Incremented for any backwards incompatible public API changes.

  • Minor (x.Y.z) - Incremented for new, backwards compatible, public API enhancements/fixes.

  • Patch (x.y.Z) - Incremented for small, backwards compatible, bug fixes.

Code of Conduct

Read Code of Conduct for details.

Contributions

Read Contributions for details.

License

Read License for details.

History

Read Changes for details.

Credits

Engineered by Brooke Kuhlmann.